Georgia - General Information


The Republic of Georgia is located to the east of the Black Sea and to the south of Great Caucasus Mountain Range. In the 41-43 latitude and 40-46 longitude. This region is known as the “South Caucasus” or " Transcaucasia" currently in Western languages. It shares borders with the Russian federation in the north, Turkey and Armenia in the south and Azerbaijan in the east.


Area: 69.700 km 2

Government: Republic. Gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.

Population: 5,399,000 (1999), 56% residential, 44% rural

Capital: Tbilisi, population - 1.253.000
Georgians - 70%, Armenians - 8%, Azeris - 6%, Russians 5%, Greeks - 2%.

Principal towns: Kutaisi - (233.100), Rustavi- (150.000), Batumi- (130.100), Gori - (68.000), Poti - (50.900).

Head of State and Government: President Giorgi Margvelashvili since 2013.

Language: The official language is Georgian, the only language in the Ibera Caucasian family written in ancient script, with its own unique alphabet. Russian, Ossetian, Mingrelian, Armenian, Azeri and Abkhazian are also spoken.

Religion: Christian majority, mainly Greek Orthodoxy, other confessional groups include Shiite and Sunni Muslims, Armenian Gregorian, Catholics, Baptists, Judaists

Geography: Georgia is a mountainous country bordered by the Black Sea in the west, which forms a 315km (205 mile long) coastline. The state is crossed by the ranges of the Greater Caucasus (highest peaks: Mt. Shkhara, 5068m, Mt. Kazbek, 5047m /16,554ft). The inter mountain depression to the south of the Greater Caucasus encompasses the Kolkheti lowland, Inner Kartli, Lower Kartli and the Alazani Plains. Still further to the south the Minor Caucasian ranges rise to the medium height (Meskheti, Shavsheti and other ranges), reaching 2850 m. The southernmost area of the country is covered by the volcanic South Georgian Upland (Mt. Didi Abuli, 3301 m, its highest peak). The Greater Caucasus and the South Georgian Upland join with the Likhi Range, which at the same time divides Georgia into two contrasting climatic zones:
Western and Eastern Georgia. Enclosed high valleys, wide basins, health spas with famous mineral waters, caves and waterfalls combine in this land of varied landscapes and striking beauty.

Main Rivers: Mtkvari (Kura) - 1515km (351km in Georgia), Alazani - 407km (390km in Georgia), Rioni (333km).

Main Lakes: Paravani (38, depth - 3.3m, 2073m above sea-level), Tabatskuri (14, depth - 40m, 2000m above sea-level), Keli (1,3 depth - 63m, 2900m above sea-level), Ritsa (1,5 depth - 101m, 880m above sea-level).

Time: GMT + 4.

Electricity: 220 volts AC, 50 Hz. European-type, two-pin plugs are used.

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